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Four Sides of a Cube: The Way of Great Books

Four Sides of a Cube: The Way of Great Books

We flip to the Great Books in order that the encounter with them may do for us what they did for previous generations. We flip to them as world makers, that they could aide us in understanding the world they have been instrumental in bringing about, our world…

“As we speak, is greatness
nonetheless potential?’

“Ideas do not decay, but people’s
understanding of them can decay.”
Stringfellow Barr

“St. John’s is a college’s college,
for it is the archetype of liberal education,
the pure thing.”
David Boroff [2]

 ‘…In the future men will point
to St. John’s School and say that there was
the seed-bed of the American Renaissance.’
Walter Lippmann[3]


To everybody: Welcome! To our new freshman particularly: a particular Welcome! Tonight I would really like us to turn into reflective. I would really like us to ask ourselves one query: why can we do what we do?

Let me first say one thing concerning the title of tonight’s speak “Four Sides of a Cube, Or, Why a Certain Question Needs to Be Asked Again and Again.” (The subtitle shall be addressed within the physique of the speak.) I perceive that individuals are questioning whether or not I understand how many sides a dice has. Let me guarantee you I perceive that cubes would not have 4 sides. I used to be requested to offer the title of the dean’s lecture for public relations functions initially of the summer time. Nevertheless, I had not but written the speak initially of the summer time. To be accommodating, I gave a title I had been toying with, although I couldn’t be sure that it might even apply to the ultimate model.

The topic of this speak is the origin of “the New Program of St. John’s College.” Its origin is multifaceted, so I assumed it applicable to decide on as its picture a many-sided determine. I’m not saying, nevertheless, that it has six sources – see… What’s necessary just isn’t the six however the 4, that’s, I’ll be talking about some of the edges, not all of them. Particularly, this speak shall be poor in at the least two respects: I can’t discuss all of the essential methods by which the venture of the St. John’s Program has been conceived, nor can I anticipate different necessary self-understandings of the school nonetheless to be articulated. Thus the unique concept was an try and seize the restricted nature of my efforts tonight. Apart from, “Four Sides of a Cube” is a much more felicitous formulation than “N-2 Sides of a Polyhedron.”

I. A Query Must be Requested:

That voices,
‘grown voicless from long silence,’
may as soon as once more be heard.

It’s a curious paradox of human inherence that we frequently get so concerned in an exercise that we lose sight of the unique causes for the enterprise. In our case we’re, with youthful vigor, about to throw ourselves headlong into the work of this system… with nice rewards little question, however on the danger of dropping sight of the entire. So earlier than we rush headlong and immerse ourselves in our over-full curriculum, it might do us properly to take a seat again, search a long way, and contemplate anew the explanations for our doing what we’re about to do.[5]

That’s one of the needs of a dean’s lecture: to offer a chance for reflection about our enterprise as a entire. Nevertheless, instigating such reflection shouldn’t be one individual’s duty alone. At numerous occasions throughout our keep in Santa Fe, every of us wants to think about repeatedly, for him or herself, the aim, origin, and profit that comes from this distinctive type of schooling.

However how are we, who’re about to hurry headlong and be submerged in a wealth of particulars to achieve that perspective and distance, that generality we name “objectivity?” How may we glimpse once more one thing of the forest of which we’re however a tree? “Summer” is a great way. It too provides us distance. Nevertheless it’s typically too efficient in retrieving us from shortsightedness. It tends, fairly, to be a nice eraser. So maybe my perform tonight wants additionally to be to remind us of what’s in danger of being erased with time.


Nicely, I used to be rummaging across the attic of the school this summer time and located some fascinating historic paperwork within the dusty trunk of our previous. Hooked up to those paperwork have been authors’ names maybe unknown to you, or solely distantly: Erskine, Maritain, Meiklejohn, van Doren, Adler, McKeon, Hutchins and so on., and people higher recognized: Barr, Buchanan, Klein, Wilson, Brann. A number of of these paperwork, I assumed, may present a good place for us to start to mirror anew about why we do what we do, certainly why we’re the best way we’re. However first I want to supply this caveat.

St. John’s School by its very pedagogy seeks to go to the roots of issues. However what are its roots? These could be each historic and non-historical (eidetic, noetic, transcendental, trans-temporal, unhistorical). This night I’ll think about a few of the categorical historic ones. However in doing so I solely need to present us with an event for additional thought. By doing so I don’t presume that our historical past supplies the adequate account for our being. In so saying, although, I do admit that historical past—one thing we on the school discover ourselves uncomfortable addressing—may be useful, if in a restricted approach. These historic paperwork are introduced as a means by which broader and deeper questions could also be highlighted, and its context, a approach during which the felt urgency and weighty immediacy of these may once more be delivered to the forefront of our consideration. As such it’s introduced within the service of philosophy, of bringing the taken as a right to mild and of bringing the unquestioned presuppositions beneath renewed scrutiny. Once more, my intention in giving what seems a historical past lesson just isn’t such, however as an event for thought, that the voices of the previous may converse to us within the current and assist us in excited about our future.

Given this, let me now say that the New Program of the school was shaped out of an environment of historic disaster and the institution of this small school with its distinctive type of schooling was thought the right and urgently wanted response to these world crises.

II. To Deliver Us Again To Ourselves:

“To be an American is to downplay
history in the name of hope, to ignore
memory in the cause of possibility.”
Cornel West[6]

60 years in the past (now 80+), in what needs to be one of probably the most extraordinary reviews by a school president to a board of guests and governors, the primary president of the New Program at St. John’s, Stringfellow Barr wrote the next in Might 1941.[7] His concern in his report is the prospect for continued liberty of the democratic peoples, particularly for our personal, whose liberty at that very second was threatened on two fronts by a world disaster (World Conflict II). He steps again and seeks to place occasions into a longer perspective: “Maybe Patrick Henry meant by liberty what Montesquieu… meant: ‘In governments, that is in societies directed by laws, liberty can consist only in the power of doing what we ought to will, and in not being constrained to do what we ought not to will.’ … Liberty was conceived by our forefathers as the precious right to act justly towards other men.” Together with Henry and Montesquieu, Mr. Barr wonders whether or not we should not assume in a different way concerning the phrase “liberty” than we usually do, assume of it as a constructive energy fairly than a adverse notion, as freedom to train logic and act responsibly and never merely freedom from exterior constraints.

However, then, in a second of darkish reflection, he provides: “Perhaps liberty is not the word in 1941 to bring us back to ourselves[8]…. Perhaps justice… might rouse an echo in our hearts, might move our wills. Certainly, the word democracy does not seem [any longer] to have roused or moved.” Along with the numerous occasions overseas, equally vital modifications had already taken place at residence in our language.[9] Phrases, and never simply phrases, elementary concepts had over time misplaced their which means. Liberty. Justice. Democracy. Such phrases, it was thought, not moved the guts and can in 1941, that’s, even in a time of grave world disaster. (And now?)

He continues: “Hitler and Mussolini repeatedly declared, long before the shooting began, that democracy was decadent…. It was [the French philosopher] Jacques Maritain who pointed out that the ‘moderate Machievellianism’ of the democracies could never defeat the all-out Machievellianism of Hitler.” This leads Mr. Barr to a painful prospect: “It is just possible that democracy, as we have known it and practiced it and preached it, really is dead, and that Hitler is proving it.” Keep in mind that is 1941, the center of the European marketing campaign, whose consequence at this level was by no means clear. However, Mr. Barr continues, “What [Hitler] cannot teach, because it is not true, is that the ideas [that] once made democracy great are also decadent. Ideas do not decay; yet people’s understanding of them can decay…. And literally [and here he means ‘literally’] as sure as shooting, a free republic cannot defend itself against aggressive tyranny unless its citizens understand those ideas which make men free and guard their freedom. No free republic can fight off tyranny unless its citizens love…more than ‘their cut.’”[10] Let me repeat one sentence: “Ideas do not decay; yet people’s understanding of them can decay.”

The query right here is the underlying purpose for our political vulnerability. Mr. Barr’s suggestion is that: “…It is the loss of those [very democratic] ideas which has paralyzed the will of the American Republic in 1941, as it had… the will of the people Hitler has already subjugated. If this Report numbers the consequences of that loss [to a board of visitors and governors],” he continues, “it is because of the inescapable connection between the decay of liberal education and the decay of liberal government.[11] These same forefathers of ours who could use words like “justice” and “liberty” and make them carry which means, have been deeply conscious that no authorities by “reflection and choice” [Hamilton’s famous phrase in Federalist Papers, #1] might hope to face until residents acquired the type of liberal schooling that might allow them to mirror nicely and select by the sunshine of understanding.

Additional, “…the task of disciplining and strengthening the intellectual powers of men [and women]… [has been] delegated to the colleges of liberal arts…” that they could mirror and select nicely. Given this, Mr. Barr cites the St. John’s School Constitution, which units this out as a first precept:

Whereas, Establishments for the liberal schooling of youth within the rules of advantage, information and helpful literature are of the very best profit to society, with a purpose to practice up and perpetuate a succession of in a position and trustworthy males [and women] for discharging the varied workplaces and duties of life, each civil and non secular, with usefulness and popularity, and such establishments of studying have accordingly been promoted and inspired by the wisest and greatest regulated States: Be it enacted….

The purpose that this duty can’t be completed by political means and has, moderately, to be delegated to the universities, Mr. Barr observes, is that “Ultimately… freedom is internal, and ultimately it is based on a discipline that is equally internal. Today [in 1941],” he says, “we do not possess that internal discipline in a measure adequate to guarantee [for long] our liberties…. [But] if we lose at last our power to govern ourselves, we shall forfeit the right to do so.”

He then elaborates: “…In an important sense, the Bill of Rights is negative…. Nowhere does it, can it, or should it tell us either the list of things we ought to do or how to do them. That, in the opinion of our ancestors, was the [proper] business of liberal education. That, in their opinion, was an arduous process; for it is harder to develop in men [1] their native powers of self-control, [2] their native powers of thinking through, [3] their native powers to follow up with courageous and just action than it is to tug and drive them with club and carrot. Tyrants forbid citizens to do their duty as free men. Free government permits them to do it. Liberal education enables them to do it.”

Then Mr. Barr gives this extraordinary check of an schooling: “Regardless of [the] social contacts or courses that pretend to be commercially useful, [we must ask:] [1] do our colleges prepare [us] to make fearless and responsible decisions under a Constitution like ours and [2]—equally important, if only recently releant—does their preparation give [us] anything that would stand by [us] in a concentration camp? A genuine discipline in the liberal arts would meet both tests,” he says.


There are various issues which might be noteworthy about this President’s report. Most conspicuous is the extraordinary expectation for liberal schooling, and by extension for this small school, and, by extension additional, for us individually. As introduced right here, concepts are a principal supply of uman power, each political and particular person. (They don’t seem to be “mere ideas.”) And the loss of these concepts with their correct understanding leads to a loss of power—“paralysis of the will”—that exhibits itself in our being excessively weak to exterior pressure.[12]

In line with Mr. Barr, liberal arts schools have a political obligation, implicitly delegated, to finish the work of republican governments. Particularly it falls to them to finish our understanding of freedom and thereby to strengthen us from inside. For the seat of freedom is finally within the particular person, and this inside a authorities of exterior legal guidelines can go solely thus far to the touch. It’s slightly for the faculties, particularly sure sorts of faculties, to “train up” and “discipline”’ us. It’s via them that concepts like freedom come to their full which means, on this case come to imply greater than slender self-interest and we, in flip, come to like greater than “our cut.” Schooling on this sense can be enabling, encouraging, and eventually ennobling. This course of, he says, is arduous; keep in mind that phrase, arduous.

To perform this, liberal schooling guarantees to “bring us back to ourselves.” As our languages are likely to grow to be empty of unique significations, so our tradition and our lives too turn into however shadows of their former selves. Mr. Barr sees liberal schooling as reversing this unlucky historic course of and restoring significant signification to speech and thence to life. These extraordinary remarks must be explored additional.

III. Impaired by Historical past:

“It is dangerous to be an heir.”

For many who might not keep in mind, let me evaluation the background. For many who have no idea, let me attempt to symbolize once more the magnitude of the crises. Merely put, there are occasions—too, frequent, to make certain—when life turns into so overwhelmingly complicated, to not say, disorienting, and certainly precarious, that it’s essential to step again and mirror, that’s to assume issues by way of from the start.

World Warfare I used to be such a time; World Struggle II was one other. Particularly these two international crises raised new specters and threats hitherto solely “a mere idea.” The wars themselves launched horrific new methods: mustard fuel, saturation bombing of non-combatant populations, and was quickly to introduce atomic weaponry, Gulags and Auschwitzes. The human carnage of these wars was unprecedented. The inhumanity of man appeared to have reached new heights. The horrific novelty and inhuman effectivity with which human beings have been scientifically slaughtered, disabled, vaporized and was smoke took away our breath and uncovered on the similar time, for all to see, the human ambiguity of capitalism and commercialism, of science and know-how that appeared solely to assist and abet the basest inhuman ends. This paralleled the rise of mass society, with its dilution of human dignity in seas of numbers (and its concomitant statistical methodologies with their indiscriminate tendency towards low denominators). Together with these got here worries concerning the power of the democracies themselves and their conventional vulnerabilities, their tendencies to mediocrity, their discount of judgment to opinion polls, and their taking false consolation in empty phrases and abstractions.[14] Might we muster adequate wherewithal to face up to the brand new threats? All this led many to despair, discouragement, and loss of a future prospect; it led others, nevertheless, to marvel concerning the causes and their applicable responses.

At such occasions of disaster, sure issues come to the fore.[15] We study what it means to be historic beings, that’s, beings which have a previous, beings who carry that inheritance into the current. One writer writes: “…Since we happen to be the results of earlier generations, we are also the results of their aberrations, passions, and errors, even crimes; it is not possible quite to free oneself from this chain.[16]” We thus got here to marvel not simply concerning the atrocious deeds of others—not simply concerning the horrific excesses of the Axis powers—however about ourselves and our personal humanity. Individuals questioned our traditions, our values, our world. It appeared that our European tradition had misplaced its ethical power and middle. Phrases similar to “nihilism,” “decadence,” “cynicism,” and “relativism” have been used and, sorry to say, appeared to hold which means. Individuals spoke of “the onset of barbarism” (Lippmann), of an “abyss” into which all of us appeared to be headed (Hutchins), and these weren’t discounted as hyperbole or hype media.[17]

We confronted, briefly, “…the problem of restoring the health of a people which [had] become impaired by [its own] history.[18]” Might we rise above the all-consuming historic circumstances?[19] What might, in Mr. Barr’s phrases, “stand by us” in such occasions?

IV. Indigestible Information Stones:

“The free mind must be its own teacher.”
Scott Buchanan[20]

Wanting again, the query was requested what offered the bottom for many who made this manner of life of ours potential to start with, the Founders? Thus some appeared once more on the schooling that stood underneath those that made us who we’re. Might the Jeffersonian hope (or the Platonic dream) regarding liberal schooling as the appropriate protection towards human dysfunction and battle nonetheless stand?

It was the conviction of Jefferson and the American Founders that “If a nation expects to be ignorant and free in a state of civilization, it expects what never was and never will be.”[21] Jefferson argued additional that the vulnerabilities and excesses of democracy might be moderated by liberal schooling:

Expertise hath proven that, even beneath one of the best varieties [of government], these entrusted with energy have in time… perverted it into tyranny; and it’s believed that probably the most effectual means of stopping this is able to be, to light up [educate], so far as practicable, the minds of the individuals… to offer them information of these information, which historical past exhibiteth, that… they could be enabled to know ambition underneath all its shapes, and immediate to exert their pure powers to defeat its functions… whence it turns into expedient for selling the publick happiness that these individuals, whom nature hath endowed with genius and advantage, ought to be rendered by liberal schooling worthy to obtain and capable of guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of their fellow residents.[22]

However as we noticed others and ourselves “‘paralyzed” earlier than the onslaught of the Axis powers, this very conviction got here into query. Was liberal schooling “standing by us”? And if not, how have been we to reinvigorate these establishments that, it was believed, as soon as offered a bulwark towards such threats?

In 1936 one of the founders of the school posed the identical query. “How can we hope to improve the state of the nation?” he requested. He gave this Jeffersonian reply: “We can do so only if some [educational] institutions can be strong enough and clear enough to stand firm and show our people what the higher learning is. As education, it is the single-minded pursuit of the intellectual virtues… the pursuit of truth for its own sake… the preparation of men and women for their life work.”[23]

“Why did this education disappear?” he questioned. “It [was] the education of the Founders [after all].[24] It held sway until fifty [that is, a hundred +] years ago.[25]” The improvements that modified the face of American schooling have been established within the nineteenth century: the college system with its concomitant elective system (Elliot) and lecture system. It led to a “service station” (Hutchins) (or maybe higher, “convenience store”) conception of schooling, a system that served many masters and appealed to many appetites besides lastly an important one, the brand new learner.

Co-opted by the professions, the elective system had through the years been complemented by fewer and fewer “foundation” or “core” programs.[26] One was required to decide on one’s main earlier and earlier with a purpose to meet ever extra pre-professional calls for. As such schooling not aimed toward making us extra considerate, extra accountable, extra human, however, fairly, easier, preoccupied with our primary wishes (meals, intercourse, leisure units), and extra helpful, preoccupied with the acquisition of entry degree expertise and different pre-professional necessities, oblivious to our neighbors, our future, our deepest human potential. With no widespread curriculum standing beneath these “choices,” we come away with no widespread basis, with the outcome that what we now have in widespread lastly is just not the mutual concern with the deepest human questions. “Choice” proved yet one more empty phrase.

The “delivery system” that conveyed the matter of schooling was the lecture technique. After years of sitting passively listening to others, nevertheless, one comes away, not surprisingly, a passive learner. Others speak at us, giving us prepackaged, preinterpreted, and predigested info. However how can what’s digested by others be nourishing for us? “In the end,” one of our program authors writes, “modern man drags an immense amount of indigestible knowledge stones around with [them].”[27] Speak about indigestion! And since the fruits of others’ ideas are delivered to us with out on the similar time making us anymore capable of assume these ideas for ourselves, we don’t come away reworked or enabled by the expertise. The mode of acquisition being exterior, our grasp can’t however be so.[28] One is essentially a hearer, seldom a thinker. What we’ve discovered not often turns into “our own” however “remains someone else’s.”[29]

The conventional, basic features of schooling have been thus not being fulfilled. Being primarily pre-professional, the prevailing system can serve us properly provided that we’re prepared to simply accept the discount of ourselves to job expertise.[30] The plainest indication that the American schooling had failed us: one leaves “the hallowed halls of academia” with no developed sense of one’s personal potential.[31] We’re thereby disadvantaged of our ownmost selves and our nation of its informing basis. One has not been enabled as a person or citizen.

V. A Bridge Throughout Turning into:

“The manner of forming [one’s] ideas
is what gives character to the human mind.”

What, then, could be executed? In 1936, the identical inspiration for St. John’s declared: “The times call for the establishment of a new college….”[33]However what would a school seem like that took such considerations to coronary heart? It turned out that the brand new school wouldn’t be very new (certainly one of the oldest), and the brand new pedagogy and new curriculum would have very previous roots, certainly antedating the American Founders themselves.

To talk paradoxically, the brand new school would have a program that advocated main schooling, versus by-product, secondary schooling. It might search above all to be liberating (that’s, liberal) by being an enabling schooling, making out there to every of us each our mental inheritance and our personal particular person mental assets. It will search, briefly, “to bring us back to ourselves.” It will do that by re-enfranchising the learner, by making “open discussion” the world of studying, and by in search of to create “a habitual vision of greatness” (Whitehead) by having us reduce our tooth on the most effective our traditions have to supply.[34]

Let me point out one unsettling reality regarding schooling. Regardless of how good one’s professor, regardless of even how nice even a nice guide, nobody else can study for you. Certainly, Plato went to date in his dialogue Meno to attempt to show that educating is inconceivable. This isn’t to say that studying shouldn’t be attainable, fairly the opposite. If there’s something that’s efficient right here, it’s studying. Therefore the learner, not the knower, needs to be the middle of our pedagogic efforts.

Above all studying is an exercise and as an exercise is developed and additional actualized by the doing of it.[35] Therefore for us it turns into the query, not the reply, that ought to be the principal instrument of studying, and dialogue, not lecture, that ought to be its venue. So too, the main target is on the humanities of acquisition (not possession), the humanities of reflection and discovery that historically are referred to as “the liberal arts.” These are all within the service of the habits of originality, of non-dependence, of developed self-resourcefulness. Solely thereby can we turn into lively brokers in our personal schooling. Right here others could also be of help, however solely as guides, not professors[36], the superior learner modeling the tutorial virtues of openness, perseverance, honesty and humility earlier than the work.

What’s most conspicuous about this kind of schooling is its lack of lectures… besides this one. By design, we refuse to “talk down,” that’s to categorize, to have somebody determine beforehand how what’s to be mentioned is to be mentioned. Additional, what’s equally interested in a lecture is that, most of the time, one is introduced solely with the outcomes of somebody’s considering and never with the method itself that led to these outcomes. This results in the very odd and unhelpful circumstance that information is decoupled from its origin, from discovery, from the very important, originative questions that led thereto, briefly, from the method of studying.[37] But when we’re desirous about studying learn how to study, and never simply what’s to be discovered, then we’ve to focus our consideration on the circumstances of studying, for it’s the course of that’s enabling.[38]

Against this we search to find why and the way somebody thought as she or he did.[39] We search to put ourselves contained in the thought of the thinker, to stay their query (Haggard), to grow to be their query. We search to go to that place in a thinker’s thought the place all of the thought-vectors and implications are discoverable by us. A tutor may be of help right here in serving to one to find “the way in” (Townsend), though as soon as there, it’s as much as us to assume it by means of for ourselves. Briefly, we propose that one excellent method to discover ways to assume is to deeply rethink, retrospectively and prospectively,[40] the thought of those that have offered fashions of extraordinary thoughtfulness. This course of holds out the promise, too, of real marvel and actual discovery[41] that the thought may grow to be ours in an genuine and transformative means and never stay “someone else’s.”

Furthermore, as a result of the query at hand has not been pre-decided or moved off the desk by some intermediate authority, or as a result of we’ve not but fallen into that straightforward cynicism that avoids a query by dismissing it, our discussions will not be precluded from being substantive and consequential, and we, the members, prevented from accepting the complete duty for thought. “The exclusion of the truth question from students’ classroom experience, and consequently from their studies,” a former dean wrote (Brann), “has a devastating effect: It turns all… studies into a high-class game….[42]” That fact may matter shouldn’t be denied us as a risk, she urged.

The dialogue mode, additional, has this extra, essential benefit. Whereas considering may in the long run be one’s personal, that’s be a personal matter, studying does profit in a elementary means from joint effort and mutuality. “Let us learn together,” Socrates says regularly; allow us to assist one another articulate, make clear, and develop each other’s concepts. What we study within the course of of dialogue is the primacy of the thought over one’s private commitments (and particular person ego), one thing troublesome to study by oneself. We study that we typically should forsake our self-interest and our personal misbegotten concepts in favor of the chances opened up by dialogue, if, that’s, the argument warrants it. (Against this, a lecture all the time appears to hold with it a tinge of proprietorship.) Aristotle says that there are specific issues, particularly about oneself, that we will solely study from others.[43] Studying concerning the selflessness of studying could also be one of these issues. This new openness, furthermore, serves us not solely in joint inquiry, however as a mannequin for selfless, personal reflection as nicely. Solely then are we really prepared, able to pay attention and able to learn, solely then are we open to a different, a fellow learner, a pal, or the best of nice books.

VI. The Way of Great Books:

We flip to nice books, then, not simply because they have been as soon as which means giving and offered foundations for various methods of life. We aren’t prior to now as previous.[44] We flip to them moderately that the encounter with them may do for us what they did for previous generations. We flip to them as world makers, that they could aide us in understanding the world they have been instrumental in bringing about, our world.[45] We flip to them that we’d confront the entire of our world, its mathematical and pure scientific underpinnings, a minimum of its humanistic ones. (Right here arithmetic and science usually are not “handmaidens.”) We flip to them, as nicely, to face “the great errors as well as the great truths.[46]” On the one hand, they could present a mannequin for considering nicely and deeply, and therefore be not simply one thing to duplicate however to advance. On the opposite, they supply us with a chance to assume in a different way, within the considering by way of of which, the “determinate negation” (Hegel) may present us with a trace of the place thought may constructively go. Briefly, we flip to them to interact our fullest inheritance within the fullest approach.

Consideration of these “originative authors” (Brann), furthermore, locations us at a distinctive vantage level, on the level of the emergence of an concept, when a query continues to be open—not but sure by inherited fences—which then can but function fashions of deep inquiry the place elementary presuppositions are in query.[47] Lastly we flip to “Great Books” as a result of they provide us a chance to unabashedly assume “great thoughts,” ideas that appear least sure by time and area.[48] “If you live yourselves in the history of great men [human beings],” one of our authors says, “you will learn from it a highest commandment, to become ripe [yourselves] and to flee the paralyzing educational constraints of the age….”[49] We search to hitch thinkers at “the height of their humanness” (Steadman) as they search intimations of one thing greater than transitory (one thing unhistorical)

An encounter with the fullest and deepest of our traditions thus guarantees a lot: that by exercising our minds, unmediated—mano à mano—with probably the most difficult thinkers, we’d develop proportionately; that by experiencing unique thought within the making, our capacities for unique thought too is perhaps impressed; that as we’re taken to new heights, we’d uncover locations “where we have not gone before” and develop new capacities to ascend thereto; that in dealing with the hardest of the robust human questions, we’d thereby be strengthened; that as we’re launched to the entire vary of what our authors deem worthy of duty, so will our personal sense of our duty develop; that in studying how very complicated the world and its correlate, the world of thought, is, so we is perhaps delivered to develop into ever extra self-resourceful (“sophisticated” within the good sense); and, lastly, in doing all this ourselves, we’d, in probably the most elementary approach, be “brought back to ourselves” and obtain a heightened fullness of independence, hitherto unrealized…. That is the promise of a liberal schooling resembling ours. It’s nonetheless for us to make it actual.

Such was the promise of the New Program at St. John’s that one of the foremost commentators of the day even waxed… nicely, you inform me: “I venture to believe that [a rebirth of learning] is true [happening],” he wrote, “and that in the future men will point to St. John’s College and say that there was the seedbed of the American Renaissance” (Lippmann). Ummm…. However as we stated, that’s the promise. It’s nonetheless as much as us to make it actual. Ah, and right here too is the rub.

VII: ‘The Silent Artillery of Time:’

 “It is for us the living, rather,
to be dedicated here to the unfinished work
which they who fought here
have thus far so nobly advanced.”
Abraham Lincoln[50]

We now have appeared again this night at some of the circumstances that introduced the school’s founders to entertain a daring enterprise: to assume the goals of schooling via from the start and to introduce the New Program in 1937. However that was 64 years in the past [now 80+ years]. And time, we’ve discovered, takes its toll on human understanding.

There’s a passage in a speech by the younger Abraham Lincoln (1838) that casts mild on this query of the recessive high quality of time previous.[51] He too is wanting again that he may perceive higher the prospect for his day. With the urgency of the formative revolutionary conflict interval previous, with the truth of immanent battle lengthy gone, with there being no exterior menace uniting us in a heightened consciousness of what we worth, briefly, in his phrase, with the “passions”[52] of the Founders receding—he’s reflecting on occasions 60+ years prior—Lincoln is compelled to boost the query of the perpetuation of our [political] establishments. Briefly, he needed to take up as a query his new era, what, in earlier occasions, may need been taken without any consideration.

The drawback, as he sees it, is that the founding passions of the prior revolutionary interval are usually not, certainly can’t any longer function the motivating passions of the current and subsequent generations. As he graphically brings us to understand, the historical past that when touched each household—the testimonies of limbs mangled and scars from wounds but seen—what he calls, movingly, “the living histories”—this dwelling proof was not out there to his era. This vivid proof had given gravity, readability of function, and a sense of widespread future to the generations instantly following the conflict. However, he notes, “what invading foemen could never do, the silent artillery of time has done….” His query thus turns into: What can present for his and later generations what these “the living histories” did for earlier ones?

Lincoln’s response is that we should develop into reflective, considerate proponents, not passive perpetuators, of what’s greatest in our inherited custom. He compares our inheritance to an historic temple that, the more severe for time, is not capable of stand in its unique glory. He says, now that “the pillars of the temple of liberty… have crumbled away, that temple must [inevitably] fall… unless we, their descendents, supply their places with other pillars, hewn from the sold quarry of sober reason…. Unimpassioned reason must furnish all the materials for our future support and defense” (43). Descendents thus have a duty not in contrast to that of Founders. A re-founding should essentially comply with a founding if what was as soon as valued is to not turn into irretrievably “past.” It could actually solely be perpetuated and thought lasting if its cause for being what it’s turns into an specific topic of thought and reflection, and thence actively and self-consciously reaffirmed and promoted. In human issues, inertia and customized are by no means sufficient to maintain them. Neither is it for us.

It’s now greater than 60 years [80] because the starting of the New Program. These reflections on the temporal predicament of foundings—the loss of the unique precept of vitality, of the founding inspiration, of the extreme emotions of shared origination and future—places our current circumstance on the school into a deeper perspective. We should not have a revolutionary conflict nor a world cataclysm threatening our shores, that’s some exterior motive forcing us to assume onerous about why we do what we do. [Note: This lecture was given 12 days before 9/11.] Fairly the opposite, “the silent artillery of time” does its work of placing the unique motivation and readability of objective at a distance from us—making it previous—lulling us into unreflectively perpetuating what has come right down to us. However, Lincoln advises us, each new era[53] has to take up the query of its foundations, in any other case the “pillars of the temple” weaken.

VIII. A Unhappy Story:

“Much harm is caused by
thoughtless transplanting.”

One can see this drawback of inheritance in one other method. The similar commentator talked about above (Lippmann) tried to seize our predicament within the following story:

As soon as upon a time I knew an previous gentleman who had inherited from his father, who had made it, a nice and noble organ. The previous gentleman tended it with pious care and on the slightest provocation he would play it with resounding eloquence. After which within the course of time he died, and his son inherited the home and the organ, with all its intricate pipes. The son favored the organ, too, and had discovered to play it, although he performed it considerably apologetically within the presence of his household….

…So he used the organ much less and fewer, however it nonetheless happy him to assume that the good and noble organ was there, and if ever he wanted it to face up to the vicissitudes of outrageous fortune, he might depend upon it to fortify his spirit. After which, at some point issues did go very badly with him, and feeling that he should play the organ once more, he sat right down to it [but] discovered to his dismay that one thing had gone incorrect inside and that he might increase no sound besides probably the most horrid wheezing and groaning. Clearly, the organ wanted to be repaired. However in contrast to his grandfather who had made it or his father who had typically taken it aside and put it collectively once more, he had not the slightest notion of how an organ works.

So he seemed within the categorised phone listing to seek out the [repair] service for pipe organs. However there was none in his city, and there was none in his county, and none in his State. However eventually at nice expense he induced an professional who lived in a distant metropolis to return and examine the difficulty. The skilled got here, made an examination, stated the organ had been a very superb previous instrument however that the damaged half was not made, and that nobody knew methods to make it, and that, unhappily subsequently, the organ might by no means be performed once more.

The commentator who relates this unhappy story sees it as “…a parable of the history of the free peoples during the past three or four [now five] generations. For they have inherited great and noble institutions from their forefathers who made them. But because they have not inherited the knowledge which enabled their forefathers to make these institutions, they do not really know how to preserve them, and improve them.”

Historical past is subsequently an imperfect medium of transmission. Our “inheritance” is simply partially conveyed to us. It takes work on our half—keep in mind, arduous work—to comprehend its fullness. Although a “musical instrument” and even a political establishment could also be handed right down to us, the “knowledge that enabled [one] to make and preserve them” just isn’t so simply handed down. Thus we have to revisit the world makers that we’d grow to be capable of keep, and if crucial restore, our establishments of their fullness. So too the school. However once more, it’s as much as us.

IX: Books Unread, A Query Unasked:

“Will the idea of a ‘free man’ persist?”
Jacob Klein

Our speak this night has sought to perform one “small thing” (as Socrates would say), to have us ask ourselves one query, the query of our origins and causes for being. A number of causes have been introduced forth as events for reflection. Even absent a world disaster [Again note: 12 days before 9/11], “the silent artillery of time” by itself—its accretions and loss of proof, and our neglect, forgetfulness, and certainly even our newness—requires that we every take up this query for our personal. For we have now solely to understand that “To put an end to the spirit of inquiry that has characterized the West, it is not necessary to burn the books [as the Nazis and many others have done]. All we have to do is to leave them unread for a few generations.[54]”

Alongside the best way, many questions have been raised: Are we fulfilling our delegated duty to allow “positive or reflective (Starr) freedom”? Are we restoring which means and power to the material of language, and certainly to life? Are we offering a foundation for “fearless and responsible decisions”? Are we creating our native powers of “self-control, thinking through, and of following up with courageous and just action?” Have we grow to be “worthy to receive and able to guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of [our] fellow citizens?” Are we studying how you can study?[55] (There are others.)

A program was based in 1937 the place such questions have a house. We’ve sought to deliver into being a place the place readability concerning the query is as essential as the reply, the place perception into the issue is as decisive because the attainable options, the place the circumstances of properly being accompany issues of the threats thereto, and the place the counter-argument is as alive because the proposed decision. We’ve sought, briefly, to discovered a Socratic establishment (if that isn’t a contradiction in phrases).[56]

So we ask you tonight to overlook “what you think you know” and dedicate yourselves to main studying, that you simply may need one thing indisputably yours and never “someone else’s.”

And we ask you tonight to study to learn properly and correctly, that what’s value preserving in our traditions doesn’t “wash up on the sands of time” (Goethe).

And we ask you tonight to hitch us in our efforts to not permit the previous to be unreflectively perpetuated and to pledge yourselves to the unfinished work that these authors so nobly started.

And although this “Sad Tale” was provided as a parable of the state of our schooling in years previous, let it not be relevant to the current. So we ask you tonight as properly, not solely “to learn how to play the organ,” however to study the way it works, that, ought to it ever want restore and enchancment, you, understanding why it’s made the best way it’s, won’t be at a loss to revive it, certainly even to advance its capabilities, that you simply may play it “with resounding eloquence,” reaching new heights of excellence.


Editor’s Word: This essay was initially delivered as a lecture at St. John’s School in 2001.

The Imaginative Conservative applies the precept of appreciation to the dialogue of tradition and politics—we strategy dialogue with magnanimity quite than with mere civility. Will you assist us stay a refreshing oasis within the more and more contentious area of trendy discourse? Please contemplate donating now.


[1]  Friedrich Nietzsche, Past Good and Evil, #212.

[2]  David Boroff, “St. John’s College: Four Years with the Great Books,” Saturday Assessment, March 23, 1963, 75.

[3]  Walter Lippmann, “The St. John’s Program,” The New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Submit, December 27, 1938.

[4]  Dante, Inferno, I 62-Three.

[5]  Others have cautioned me that such a undertaking would possible not show profitable. It can solely convey totally different views to the fore, risking thereby fracturing the practical entire. Or it’d lead individuals to align themselves with one interpretation or one other, thus main some to dissociate themselves from the entire. Or I’d fail to offer any sense of the entire merely, thus undermining individuals’s belief within the enterprise. Or, in bringing sure views to the fore, the presentation might sound unique. Certainly I’ll fail in all these methods. I’ve not anticipated all-important methods of understanding our enterprise, these previous or these nonetheless to be articulated. Nor have I meant to take action. Therefore the title of this speak. The school as we all know it in the present day is the outcome of many visions; many have discovered a residence right here.

[6]  Cornel West, The Cornel West Reader, New York, 1999, xix.

[7]  Stringfellow Barr, A Centennial Appreciation of his Life and Work, 1897-1982, edited by Charles A. Nelson, Annapolis, 1997, 109-116.

[8]  Cp. Jacques Maritain, Schooling on the Crossroads, New Haven, 1943/1971.

[9]  Thucydides, The Peloponesian Warfare, III 82-Three and Levine, Profound Ignorance, Plato’s Charmides and the Saving of Knowledge, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Lexington Books, 2016, Chapter Two.

[10]  Robert Maynard Hutchins, The Great Conversations, Chicago, 1952/1994, 72.

[11] For an prolonged critique, see Sidney Hook, “A Critical Appraisal of the St. John’s College Curriculum,” The New Chief, Might 26 and June four, 1944, reprinted in Schooling for Trendy Man, New York, 1946.

[12]  Of like thoughts, Scott Buchanan was introduced to wonder if the monetary melancholy of 1929 was not itself a reflection of a “general decline of the human spirit” (“Awakening the Seven Sleepers,” Scott Buchanan, A Centennial Appreciation of his Life and Work, 1895-1968, edited by Charles A. Nelson, Annapolis, 1995, 9).

[13]  Nietzsche, Zarathustra, First Half, “On the Gift-giving Virtue” (The Moveable Nietzsche, Kaufman, 189).

[14]  Eva Brann, Paradoxes of Schooling in a Republic, Chicago, 1979, 139; Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, II, I xvi; additionally Hegel, “Who Thinks Abstractly?”, Hegel, Texts and Commentary, translated by Kaufman, New York, 1965, 114-118 and “Preface,” Phenomenology of Spirit, Preface, §33/19.

[15]  The environment of human disaster refracts and distorts our sense of the entire. Our logical classes get reordered in elementary methods. For comprehensible causes, crises are likely to make mere existence (and the query of being) come to the fore and have a tendency to flatten out our sense of the complete panorama earlier than us. As survival turns into paramount, so different values lose their standing and dimension of depth. However the query needs to be requested in much less urgent occasions: Is that each one that life presents?

[16]  Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Benefit and Drawback of Historical past for Life [1874], translated by Peter Preuss, Indianapolis, 1980, 22 [hereafter ADHL].

[17]  And, based on Nietzsche, the schools and the upper studying ready our historic vertigo by undermining what vestiges of a cultural basis there remained by preaching the fashionable knowledge: “If the doctrines of sovereign becoming, of the fluidity of all concepts, types and kinds, of the lack of any cardinal difference between man and animal—doctrines which [the author] take[s] to be true but deadly—are flung at the people for one more lifetime in the current mania for education, then let no one be surprised if that people perishes of pettiness and misery, of ossification and selfishness…It may then perhaps be replaced in the arena of the future by systems of individual egoism, fellowships intent on the rapacious exploitation of non-fellows and similar creations of utilitarian vulgarity (ADHL, 55).’ The “modern wisdom” thus raised questions in some concerning the goodness of fact, and whether or not the previous noticed that “truth will make us free” is itself true with out qualifications. (Cp. Goethe’s distinction between fact and wholeness, and Plato’s view that opinions have to be evaluated in phrases of three standards: expertise, prudence in addition to reasoning [Republic, IX 582a])

[18]  Nietzsche, ADHL, 25.

[19]  “We must then consider the capacity to perceive unhistorically to a certain degree as the more important and fundamental so far as it provides the foundation upon which alone something right, healthy and great, something truly human may grow (11).” Nietzsche then characteristically provides “The unhistorical resembles an enveloping atmosphere in which alone life is generated only to disappear again with the destruction of this atmosphere.” That the unhistorical is itself transient or historic could seem contradictory, however it’s within the service of Nietzsche’s hope that one may  “…give oneself a past from which one would like to be descended in opposition to the past from which one is descended,” (22) for “with an excess of history man ceases [to be man]” (11) ADHL.

[20]  Cp. Scott Buchanan, A Centennial Appreciation.

[21]  Jefferson, Letter to Charles Yancey, Monticello, January 6, 1816.

[22]  “A Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge,” Thomas Jefferson, Writings, New York, 1984, 365; cp. additionally “The Rockfish Gap Report:” “Education …engrafts a new man on the native stock, and improves what in his nature was vicious and perverse into qualities of virtue and social worth.” And Brann, Paradoxes of Schooling in a Republic, 38-58

[23]  Hutchins, The Greater Studying in America, New Haven, 1936, 32; additionally in American Larger Schooling, A Documentary Historical past, edited by Hofstadter and Smith, Chicago, II, 924-940 (933). Additionally, “We are as concerned as anybody else at the headlong plunge into the abyss that Western civilization seems to be taking. We believe that the voices that may recall the West to sanity are those [that] have taken part in the Great Conversation…” (The Great Conversations, 46).

[24]  Cp. Lippmann: “…These men who organized our liberties had followed a course of studies which comes down to us through the [ages].” “They had studied and had been drilled in the Liberal Arts, arts which are called liberal because they were what the liber homo, that is to say the free man, must know if he is to be in fact free.” “We are no longer taught to think as free men have had to learn to think.” “Between ourselves and the sources from which our civilization comes, we have dropped an iron curtain of false progress that leaves us to the darkness of our whims, our vagrant opinions, and our unregulated passions.” “The onset of barbarism must be met not only by programs of rearmament but by another revival of learning.”

[25]  Hutchins, The Great Conversations, 58.

[26]  It’s comprehensible that post-war views of schooling have been basically “practical” or “utilitarian”. However what is just not comprehensible is the next failure to acknowledge the accompanying loss.

[27]  Nietzsche, ADHL, 24.

[28]  Many of the criticisms of schooling at this time are the identical ones that led to the founding of the school, and justify its continued existence. See William Whewell (1794-1866): “It is not the Education of a man’s Humanity but an Indulgence of his Individuality” (in American Greater Schooling, II, 937-Eight); “It should not give emphasis to the superficial discussions of the current political problems which reflect more than anything else, the deplorable infantilism of contemporary life and thus increase the reigning immaturity of judgment and action” (Klein’s Dean Assertion, October, 14, 1950, in A Seek for the Liberal School, Annapolis, 1983, 120-1); “The traits of college students within the protracted Age of Enlightenment are recognized to each instructor: how multifariously ‘exposed’ to and the way little touched by expertise; how fast and but gullible of their ‘sophistication;’ how full of the vocables of rationality and the way skinny of speech; how full of concept and the way emptied of reflection!’ (Brann, Paradoxes of Schooling in a Republic, 125-6).

[29]  Archytas (fifth century BCE.) articulates the elemental drawback of schooling and its decision: “When one emerges from a state of ignorance into a state of knowledge, one must either be learning from someone else or discovering the truth for himself. But learning which is from someone else remains someone else’s, while what we discover by ourselves becomes our own” (DK fr. B3).

[30]  Furthermore, pre-professional schooling is actually involved with processes and means. Two issues comply with: 1) our selection of a main is unguided by our research, and a couple of) all of the fantastic expertise and superior studying stay ambiguous with out consideration of to what good ends they should be utilized (cp. Aristotle, Politics, VII 1337b).

[31]  Maybe this contributes to why graduates typically don’t go into fields associated to their majors.

[32]  Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Emile or On Schooling, translated by Allan Bloom, New York, 1979, 203.

[33]  Hutchins, American Larger Schooling, II, 940.

[34]  Scott Buchanan, A Centennial Appreciation, 40. Do the puppies develop to turn into equal to the bone?

[35]   A scholar as soon as advised me of a research that claims that we retain 10% of what we hear, 50% of what we learn, however 90% of what we do. Therefore the relevance of the St. John’s pedagogy.

[36]   William Darkey, Three Dialogues on Liberal Schooling, Annapolis, 1979, 124-5. (Names present in parentheses herein are from these discussions.)

[37]   “If there is such a thing as an assimilation of a body of knowledge without previous questioning [and learning]—something we are all familiar with from our early school days [and not only then]—this then has very little to do with learning and even less with thinking” (Jacob Klein, “The Art of Questioning and the Liberal Arts,” The School, January, 1979, 1.

[38]   Levine, ‘I Hate Books,’ or Making Room for Studying, 31st Annual Director’s Convocation Handle, Graduate Institute in Liberal Schooling, St. John’s School, Santa Fe, June 15th, 1997.

[39]  Even inside our personal historical past, there have been divergent opinions about find out how to study from these books. The query turned on the connection between “philosophic insight” and “historical accuracy.’ In his book A Search for the Liberal College, The Beginning of the St. John’s College Program, Winfree Smith addresses the differences of approach. “[Buchanan] was in no way bound by the inherited works of great thinkers. In some sense, though it seems strange, he did not really respect the authors of the great books; that is, he did not really think it of first importance to try to find out exactly what the authors meant. In Possibility [Chicago, 1927] [there is a section heading entitled] ‘Apology for Historical Piracy.’…. ‘The realism that demands what Kant and Aristotle really meant when they said certain things is quite irrelevant to our purpose.’ He could, therefore, like a pirate, plunder from both whatever might appear as a treasure that would be useful for the development of his own thought” (34). Smith makes an attempt to account for this strategy: “[Buchanan] was a man of the post-Cartesian world in that he was seeking methods and formulas and symbolic structure for learning or philosophizing, methods that would…bring together the most diverse worlds of thought and imagination” (35).

Against this, his successor as dean, Jacob Klein “…saw the continuity of learning…in the developing awareness…of the difficulty of finding such principles and in the effort to overcome the difficulty…. [He saw] Buchanan’s analogies [as]…imaginative…but [as] a specious, and too easy, unity in the face of the perplexities” (106). “Klein thought an absorbing preoccupation with the content of a great book to be a necessary condition of learning” (107). (See Klein’s Dean’s Assertion, 1950.) The distinction couldn’t be higher, the one in search of philosophic perception on the expense of historic accuracy (free philosophic perception), the opposite questioning how one might penetrate to the innermost thought-center if it weren’t properly grounded within the thought itself (grounded philosophic perception). On this regard Klein effected a second founding.

[40]  See Levine, Hand-Me-Downs, or The Traditionalization of Thought, 32nd Annual Convocation Handle, Graduate Institute in Liberal Schooling, St. John’s School, Santa Fe, June 14th, 1998, the place Husserl’s affect on the school is taken into account.

[41]  Klein, “The Idea of Liberal Education,” Lectures and Essays, Annapolis, 1985, 162-6.

[42]  Brann, “The American College as the Place for Liberal Learning,” Daedelus, CXXVIII, winter 1999, 162.

[43]  Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, IX.

[44]  Smith, A Seek for the Liberal School, 38.

[45] “The St. John’s program does not turn away from contemporary America to the dead past of Europe. It turns to the past to discover the living tradition without which the contemporary world is unintelligible” (“What the St. John’s Program is Not,” Radio Tackle, November 20, 1937, WFBR, Baltimore, in Stringfellow Barr, A Centential Aprreciation, 41).

[46]   Hutchins, Great Conversations, 48. See additionally his credo: “We do not think that these books will solve all our problems; we do not think that they are the only books worth reading. We think that these books shed some light on all our basic problems, and that it is folly to do without any light we can get. We think that these books show the origins of many of our most serious difficulties. We think that the spirit they represent and the habit of mind they teach are more necessary today than ever before. We think that the reader who does his best to understand these books will find himself led to read and helped to understand other books. We think that reading and understanding great books will give him a standard by which to judge all other books” (37).

[47]   Brann, The Paradoxes of Schooling in a Republic, 118.

[48]   Cp. Plato, The Republic, VII.

[49]  Nietzsche, ADHL, 38; additionally, “There will come a time when one will wisely refrain from all constructions of the world process or of the history of mankind, a time when one … considers … once again the individuals who constitute a kind of bridge across the wild stream of becoming” (53) and notice 20 above. Cp. additionally, Plato, Phaedo, 99ff.

[50]   “Gettysburg Address,” Abraham Lincoln, A Documentary Portrait Via His Speeches and Writings, edited by Fehrenbacher, Stanford College Press, 1964, 245.

[51]  “Speech to the Young Men’s Lyceum of Springfield [1838],” Abraham Lincoln, A Documentary Portrait, 34-43. The honesty and penetration of this early speech (he’s solely 29) and the historic predicament out of which he realized he needed to assume himself are exceptional.

[52]  Lincoln right here simplifies historical past for the sake of readability. For it was not merely ‘passion’ that moved the revolutionary era, however, as Hamilton stated in Federalist Papers, #1 and to which Lincoln herein alludes, they have been motivated by the “great proposition” that “a people might govern itself” (42). Even so, founding ideas, a minimum of founding passions, are topic to the identical “silent artillery of time.” There too, their motive energy is diminished and, until rejuvenated, is topic to the identical finish. “Ideas do not decay, but people’s understanding of them can decay” (Barr).

[53]  “It is the task of every generation to reassess the tradition in which he lives…” (Hutchins, The Great Dialog, 46). “I think that renovation is the mode most essential to the life of tradition” (Brann, Paradoxes of Schooling in a Republic, 174).

[54]   Hutchins, The Great Dialog, 46.

[55]  “The task is too great, human weakness too enormous. But at least we know the magnitude of the problem. And what the student really learns is what learning is, what understanding is” (Klein in Saturday Evaluation, 75).

[56]  In a typical caveat Mr. Klein cautions us to not take the very fact of an establishment as a right: “…The very institutionalization of liberal education contains a threat to liberal education…. [This]…makes the student serve a kind of routine that inhibits the spontaneity of learning…. [Moreover] in passing on a tradition there may occur, not so much the loss, as the concealment or the blurring of the insights that are at the root of the tradition [the problem of sedimentation as explicated by Husserl]” (Smith, A Seek for the Liberal School, 125-6).

[57]  Cp. “Mamun, son of Harun al Rashid,” in William Earnest Hocking, The Self, Its Physique and Freedom, New Haven, III.

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